Some interesting facts about space

Interesting facts about space

Man on the moon
In Space

The nearest galaxy to our own (the Milky Way) is Andromeda, approximately 2.5 million light years away. It is also the most distant object you can see with your naked eye; you can see it on very clear nights with no light pollution. The Andromeda galaxy is approaching our own at the rate of 140 kilometers per second and will one day collide and merge to create a singular giant galaxy. Scientists estimate this will happen in around 4 billion years time.

The Soviet Union’s Space program achieved many of the initial milestones in space exploration. The first man-made structure to orbit the Earth was the USSR’s Sputnik 1 in 1957, the first human in Space was the Soviet “Yuri Gagarin” in 1961 and the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971 was launched by the USSR. However, it was the USA and NASA who put the first men on the moon with the Apollo 11 spacecraft; Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin being the first men to step on the moon and Michael Collins the spacecraft’s pilot. Armstrong spent roughly two and a half hours outside of the spacecraft. After landing, all three crew members had to spend 21 days in quarantine where they were visited by Richard Nixon, the president of the USA at the time.

Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water and the land is mainly composed of iron, oxygen, silicon and magnesium with the majority of the iron being contained in the Earth’s core. The Earth tilts at around 66 degrees, bulges at the center around the equator and its rotation is slowing at a rate of 17 milliseconds every 100 years. The Earth is the only planet in the solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman god.

With the launch of Sputnik 2 was Laika, the Siberian Husky, who was the first animal to orbit the Earth. However, it was fruit flies, not Laika, that were the very first animals ever in space. In February 1947 the United States put fruit flies in V-2 rockets in order to study the effects of radiation. The very first mammal being a monkey named “Albert II” that was used by the United States to measure vital signs.

In the 1950s the United States government were considering detonating a nuclear bomb on the Moon in order to intimidate the USSR during the “Space Race”. Some theories suggest that the Moon was formed after a giant collision between Earth and another planet called Theia. The tides on the Earth are created by the Moon’s gravitational pull. The Moon has no atmosphere and is completely unprotected against cosmic rays and, due to the Earth’s gravitational pull, the Moon suffers from seismic tremors about 7km under the surface.

Where can you find the majority of the Earth’s iron? (in the core)

How much of the Earth’s surface is covered in water? (70%)

What is the name of our galaxy? (The Milky Way)

When will the Andromeda galaxy collide with our own? (in 4 billion years)

Who was the first human in Space? (Yuri Gagarin)

When was Sputnik launched? (1957)

How long did Neil Armstrong spend outside of the spacecraft? (two and a half hours)

Which member of Apollo 11 did not step on the moon? (Michael Collins)

What was the name of the first space station? (Salyut 1)

How long did the crew members of Apollo 11 spend in quarantine? (21 days)

What were the first animals in space? (fruit flies)

What was the name of the first animal to orbit the Earth? (Laika)

Why did the USA send Albert II into space? (To measure vital signs)

What is the composition of the Moon’s atmosphere? (It doesn’t have one)

What happens 7km under the surface of the moon?

What did the US government want to do on the moon to intimidate the USSR? (detonate a nuclear bomb)

How was the Moon formed? (Theories say the Earth and a planet called “Theia” collided and shattered)

What protection does the Moon have from cosmic rays? (none)

Sources

http://space-facts.com/earth/

http://space-facts.com/the-moon/

http://www.space.com/17764-laika-first-animals-in-space.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda%E2%80%93Milky_Way_collision

http://space-facts.com/andromeda/

Fatti su Bob Marley

Fatti su Bob Marley

Bob Marley
Bob Marley

1. Bob Marley  nasce Robert Nesta Marley il 6 febbraio 1945 in Jamaica. Suo padre era un capitano di nave di 50 anni, bianco; sua madre una ragazza di villaggio di 19 anni. Per via delle sue origini miste venne soprannominato ‘ragazzino bianco’ e preso in giro dai coetanei. Questo bullismo contribuí alla sua crescita spirituale, portandolo a dichiarare: ‘Non sono dalla parte dell’uomo bianco né dalla parte dell’uomo nero, io sono dalla parte di Dio’.

2. Da bambino, Marley leggeva la mano e prediceva il futuro con inquietante accuratezza. Quando divenne un cantante, smise completamente di leggere la mano.

3. La sua prima band, i Wailing Wailers (‘coloro che si lamentano’), fu cosí chiamata perché vivevano nei bassifondi di Trench Town, ghetto povero di Kingston.

4. Bob Marley e il suo seguito furono attaccati da uno sconosciuto armato di pistola nel 1976, in un periodo di tumulti politici. Lui e sua moglie furono sfiorati da pallottole ma con coraggio salirono sul palco per un concerto chiamato ‘Smile Jamaica’ due giorni dopo, deliziando la folla.

5.Anche se Marley rimase sposato con sua moglie Rita dall’etá di 21 anni fino alla sua morte, ebbe anche almeno altri 8 figli con otto diverse donne. Anche se non é confermato, si ritiene che in realtá siano quasi 20.

6. A scuola, la materia in cui Bob Marley andava meglio era matematica. Lasció la scuola per diventare un apprendista saldatore, quindi lasció quello quando un pezzo di metallo gli finí nell’occhio. Dopodiché divenne un cantante.

7.Una volta Marley finí in prigione per un mese dopo essere stato arrestato per possesso di marijuana. Gli amici che incontró lá ispirarono gran parte del suo attivismo politico.

8. Nel 1973, Bob andó in tour aprendo i concerti di Bruce Springsteen, come anche degli Sly and the Family Stone. Fu licenziato da Sylvester Stone dopo il quarto show perché era troppo bravo e attirava troppo l’attenzione e l’entusiasmo della folla.

9. Bob Marley fu seppellito con una chitarra, un pallone da calcio e un germoglio di erba. Le sue ultime parole, rivolte al figlio Ziggy, fuono ‘i soldi non possono comprare la vita’.

10. I diritti d’autore di ‘No Woman No Cry’ vengono mandati direttamente a una mensa dei poveri in Giamaica. Bob Marley crebbe molto povero ma quando divenne ricco acquistó case per i suoi amici e parenti e aiutó molti poveri in Giamaica.

Domande

1. Qual’era il nome di battesimo di Bob Marley? (Robert)

2. Perché era stato soprannominato ´Ragazzino Bianco´? (suo padre era bianco)

3. Qual’era l’inquietante talento di Marley? (leggere la mano)

4. Qual’era il nome della sua prima band? (i Wailing Wailers)

5. Perché erano chiamati cosí? (vivevano in un ghetto)

6. Quando hanno sparato a Bob Marley? (1976)

7. Qual’era il nome del concerto dove suonó due giorni dopo? (Smile Jamaica)

8. Come si chiamava la moglie di Marley? (Rita)

9. Quanti figli illegittimi si sospetta che abbia avuto? (20)

10. Qual’era la materia in cui era piú bravo a scuola? (matematica)

11. Per che mestiere ha fatto l’apprendista? (saldatore)

12. Perché Bob Marley é andato in prigione? (possesso di marijuana)

13. Quanto vi é rimasto? (un mese)

14. In che hanno ha aperto i concerti di Bruce Springsteen? (1973)

15. Con chi altro é andato in tour? (Sly and the Family Stone)

16. Con cosa é stato seppellito Bob Marley? (chitarra, germoglio d’erba, pallone da calcio)

17. Qual’é il nome di uno dei figli di Marley? (Ziggy)

18. Chi riceve i diritti d’autore di `No Woman No Cry´? (una mensa per i poveri)

Fonti

http://www.biography.com/news/bob-marley-biography-facts

http://www.clashmusic.com/feature/ten-things-you-never-knew-about-bob-marley

http://www.buzzfeed.com/justincarissimo/18-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-bob-marley-that-have#.oho535elEN

http://www.patheos.com/blogs/johnshore/2008/04/21-things-about-bob-marley/

Fatti interessanti sull’Amore Romantico

Fatti sull’Amore Romantico

Love
Amore

1. Il tempismo é tutto. Una persona ha piú probabilitá di innamorarsi quando ha un atteggiamento mentale avventuroso, quando é irrequeta, si sente sola o a posto dal punto di vista finanziario. Allo stesso modo, due persone che si incontrano in una situazione pericolosa hanno piú possibilitá di innamorarsi che se si fossero incontrari in una situazione noiosa.

2. Si stima che il tempo necessario a giudicare le sensazioni che qualcuno ti dá sia circa quattro minuti. Si ritiene che le sensazioni generate dalla prima impressione abbiano piú a che fare con il tono, il linguaggio del corpo e la velocitá con cui la persona parla anziché con ció che viene detto. Studi hanno rilevato che la felicitá é contagiosa. Per questo é difficile non innamorarsi di una persona felice.

3.Le donne sono solitamente attratte da uomini con un gran senso dell’umorismo perché l’umorismo é associato a onestá e intelligenza. In relazioni a lungo termine, la gente di solito preferisce un viso attraente a un corpo attraente. In relazioni a breve termine accade il contrario. Esiste un fenomeno chiamato ‘attrazione da frustrazione’ che significa che una persona sará ancora piú attratta da qualcuno che la rifiuta, o vorrá solo ció che non puó avere.

4. Innamorarsi puó far aumentare la crescita dei nervi nel corpo per circa un anno per via dell’effetto calmante che ha sul corpo e sulla mente. L’uso di cocaina e l’innamorarsi hanno gli stessi effetti neurologici sul corpo, causando una sensazione di euforia e stimolando 12 aree del cervello. É stato rilevato che tenersi per mano con la persona amata allevia stress, paura e dolore fisico.

5. Il momento piú probabile per lasciarsi é a 3-5 mesi dall’inizio di una relazione.

6. Durante le coccole, il cervello rilascia ossitocina. L’ossitocina é un antidolorifico naturale che puó alleviare stress e mal di testa per 4 ore.

7. Nei primi stadi dell’innamoramento, i sintomi psicologici di una persona sono paragonabili a quelli del disordine ossessivo-compulsivo. In entrambi i casi il cervello mostra livelli inferiori di serotonina (associata con sensazioni di pace) e maggiori livelli di cortisolo (associato con lo stress).

8.Quando ti innamori di qualcuno, il tuo corpo produce adrenalina – l’ormone della reazione istintiva di attacco o fuga. É questo che causa la sensazione di avere le farfalle nello stomaco.

9. Il desiderio sessuale stimola le aree del cervello dell’ipotalamo (fame e sete) e dell’amigdala (eccitazione), mentre i sentimenti amorosi stimola aree del cervello con elevata concentrazione di ricettori di dopamina (associate a euforia, dipendenze e voglie). Le sostanze chimiche associate all’amore e all’attaccamento, l’ossitocina e la vasopressina, sono soppresse dal testosterone. I livelli di testosterone calano quando un uomo tiene in braccio un bambino.

10. Gli uomini tendono a sentirsi amati quando lavorano, parlano o giocano fianco a fianco con la partner. Al contrario, le donne tendono a sentire il partner piú vicino quando parlano faccia a faccia. Quando due persone innamorate si guardano negli occhi, il loro battito cardiaco si fa sincronizzato. Ci vogliono circa tre minuti.

Domande

1. É vero che la situazione in cui due persone si incontrano influenza la probabilitá che hanno di innamorarsi? (sí)

2. Cita un fattore che influenza la probabilitá di una persona di trovare l’amore. (Sentirsi avventuroso, irrequieto, solo, la situazione finanziaria)

3. Quanto ci vuole a formare una prima impressione di qualcuno? (4 minuti)

4. Che qualitá rende qualcuno quasi irresistibile? (la felicitá)

5. L’umorismo é associato a quali qualitá? (onestá e intelligenza)

6. Come si dice quando vuoi ció che non puoi avere? (attrazione da frustrazione)

7. Un nuovo amore dá sensazioni simili a quale sostanza? (cocaina)

8. Stress e dolore possono essere alleviati da…? (tenersi la mano)

9. Qualé il momento in cui é piú probabile lasciarsi? (dopo 3-5 mesi)

10. Quando viene rilasciata ossitocina? (durante le coccole)

11. Cosa fa l’ossitocina? (allevia il dolore)

12. In che modo un nuovo amore somiglia al disordine ossessivo-compulsivo? (aumento di cortisolo, diminuzione di serotonina)

13. A cosa é collegato il cortisolo? (stress)

14. Quale sostanza chimica causa le farfalle nello stomaco? (adrenalina)

15. Quali sostanze chimiche sono soppresse dal testosterone? (ossitocina, vasopressina)

16. Cosa fa diminuire il testosterone? (tenere in braccio un bambino)

17. Gli uomini provano piú amore e si sentono piú vicini alla partner quando…? (sono fianco a fianco)

18. Quando due innamorati si guardano negli occhi, quanto tempo ci vuole perché i loro cuori inizino a battere in sincrono? (3 minuti)

Fonti

https://blog.udemy.com/psychological-facts-about-love/

http://facts.randomhistory.com/2009/08/04_love.html

 

How to learn a foreign language?

Language learning
A language class

How to learn a foreign language?

Note: The text below gives my opinion about how to learn a language. To see info about language learning platforms and systems click here.

Language Learning systems

A lot of nonsense is spoken about how to learn languages mostly by people with an ulterior motive such as selling some sort of language course or academic people who are too involved in abstract theories with little experience of the real world. It is almost impossible to do scientific experiments to find out how we learn languages, maybe in the future when we fully understand how the brain works it will be possible but until then all we can do is observe people learning languages to see if we can gain insights into the sort of conditions which lead to successful language learning. I believe that my own opinion is worth listening to mainly because of the amount of time I have spent both as as language learner and as a teacher. I have spent the last 26 years learning Spanish and I spent about 14 years teaching English to Spanish people. I was mostly a private one to one teacher so I have spent thousands of hours observing how people learn in close proximity.


Language Learning systems

It is interesting to consider how we learn our own native language. By the age of 5 most children have good communicative ability and have learned a very complex system of grammatical rules. This happens as if by magic. Nobody has made any grammatical explanations and nobody has consciously acted as a teacher. Nobody really understands how this happens. All we can say is that there is some sort of mysterious language acquisition device which enables us to learn languages. Many people refer to this as the LAD. It is widely believed that the LAD which helps us to learn our native language so easily becomes much less effective during the teenage years. In most cases to be completely bilingual you would have to have learned both languages before the age of 14. However, in my opinion the LAD never completely ceases to function and as long as we can expose the LAD to the correct input in the right circumstances, language acquisition is possible at any stage of life. In my opinion the best way of learning a language would be to expose your inner LAD to the right environment for about 80% of the time but also have some more formal training in grammar to help you understand how the structure of the language works.

Maybe the most rapid way of learning a language would be to fall in love with someone who is a native speaker of the foreign language, then go and live in their country and have no contact with your own language. After 6 months of such a total immersion most people would be very proficient. This is impossible for most people but if you try to find out why such a method is so successful and then replicate some of the factors it will lead to good ways of learning a language.

The most important key to success in language learning is motivation. If you have no real reason to learn a foreign language you will need incredible willpower and it is unlikely that you will ever succeed. If you consider that learning a language is a tedious chore then give up now, don’t waste any more time. Do something you like doing.

So, which is the best method of language learning? If ever you read some publicity for a language course that says their method will make you fluent in 3 weeks you can be certain that it is a lie. It is like trying to lose weight permanently by eating a diet of cabbage soup or getting fit by using a slendertone machine. It is best to use a mixture of methods which suit you personally and meets you own personal needs. Any method must be enjoyable or it will fail very quickly. In my opinion it is not a good idea to have too much faith in just one method of language learning you should do a whole range of activities which will help you learn.

One of the slowest most inefficient ways of learning a language is in a classroom full of people. School children often spend 10 years learning a foreign language with almost no result. This is probably because at school the teacher has to stick to teaching grammar because that is the only way to keep control over a classroom full of children. The results from adult education classes are a little better but only if the teacher is very good and if you also study outside of the classroom.


Language Learning systems

Here are some activities and ideas which can help you learn a language.

Attend language classes but don’t expect to learn very fast unless you do a lot of supplementary study.

Use vocabulary learning systems based on flashcards – for example duo lingua.

Watch films in the target language but with subtitles in your own language. (you can now do this with netflix)

I have recently had a go at making my own course for learning languages.  It is just a personal  project for me. I believe that flashcard learning is  a really good way of learning vocabulary.  There are currently 2 languages. Learn Spanish or
aprender ingles  

Use the immense amount of free online courses available on internet.

Sign up for the “word of the day” offered by many sites.

Do anything to make friends with people of the target language. Go to pen friend sites. Participate in online forums and interactive discussions on topics that you are interested in.

Become a couchsurfer host and have visitors in your own house from the target language. With couchsurfing you don’t actually have to put people up in your house you can just arrange to go out and show them around your city. couchsurfing.com

Use the target language version of websites which you use. eg in online banking, facebook and email accounts.

Volunteer in community programs where many people speak the target language. You can kill two birds with one stone, help people and learn their language.

Do a workaway or a helpx in a place that speak the language that you want to learn. More info

If you spend time commuting in your car, listen to one of the many language learning courses designed for the car. Better still do car pooling with someone from the target language.

Do online dating and have romantic liaisons with people from the target language.

Read books which have specially reduced vocabularies designed for language learners.

Don’t be too scared of making mistakes.  The most important thing is communication.

Go to online chatrooms which use the target language. For example

Read parallel texts which have your native language on the left and the target language on the right. You can glance over if you don’t understand something. example

Wake up in the morning by setting your alarm clock or internet radio to listen to the news in the target language.

If you have enough money get a private native teacher to come to your house.

When you have a conversation  with a native speaker constantly monitor what they say.  For example if you learn Spanish there are 2 forms of the verb “to be”.  Until you are familiar with how to use them you should continuously question why they are using one form or the other.

If you look on internet you can find linguistic interchanges for people who want to meet up in a bar and have cultural interchanges.

I have no experience of one to one skype classes with a native but this is probably worth investigating.

I don’t want to advocate heavy drinking but drinking a small amount of alcohol will make you feel less nervous and inhibited when you try to speak another language.

Note that Jehovas’s Witnesses will give you hours of free conversation classes if you invite them into your house to speak about religion.