6,000 people a day visit the Alhambra. It is Spain’s most visited monument.
It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889. The Alhambra eventually became the residence of royalty and of the court of Granada in the middle of the thirteenth century. The first change from a fort to a palace happened around 1333, by the Sultan of Granada, Yusuf I.
The Alhambra was meant to be a paradise on earth.
The main buildings of the Alhambra complex are built on a plateau which measures about 740 meters (2430 ft.) in length and 205 meters (674 ft.) at its greatest width. A visit to the Alhambra normally takes about 2 or 3 hours and most people walk around 3 or 4 kilometers on the way. There are places to buy food and drink inside the Alhambra but most people bring a sandwich or use the small bars or kiosks.
In the last 20 years or it has been very difficult to buy tickets for the Alhambra. The problem is created by the very high demand and the restriction in the amount of people allowed into the Nazrid palaces. Some years ago there was a problem with corruption, so afterwards the ticket distribution system was outsourced to ticketmaster. This was very unsuccessful, it is hard to believe how a big name in tickets could do such a bad job. Many people had to put up with a very inefficient, badly run service. Australian very not allowed to use credit cards which caused a lot of consternation. At the time of writing the ticket system is not too bad but buying tickets still requires your full attention. When people go to visit most cities they first book a flight and accommodation then think about where to visit. In Granada people first book their Alhambra tickets then find a flight and hotel.
Granada is not far from a fault line and small Earthquakes are fairly common. In 1821 an earthquake caused damage to the Alhambra complex. Every century or so there are bigger earthquakes on April 19 1956 in the town of Albolote, just outside the city, an earthquake reaching 5.1 on the Richter scale killed 12 people and destroyed 250 homes so the Alhambra has experienced many fairly large quakes in its history. The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 which killed 60 thousand people would have been felt here.
The amount of people allowed in the Nasrid palaces at any one time is restricted so it is necessary to buy a ticket which states the time that the person can enter into this part of the Alhambra. The Nasrid dynasty was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Iberia, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until January 2, 1492, when Muhammad XII (Boabdil) surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
The loss of Granada marked the end of seven centuries of Muslim rule in southern Spain. Boabdil was the last Arabic ruler who lived in the Alhambra. He negotiated the take over of the Alhambra by the Spanish monarchs. He left by the back door, (la puerta de los siete suelos), he asked that the door be shut forever afterwards. You can see this door on your left soon after entering the Alhambra from the ticket office.
The geometric artwork decorating the interiors of the Alhambra follow Islamic law, meaning there are no depictions of living beings.
The ceilings, columns and walls of the Alhambra are covered with over 10,000 Arabic inscriptions. They contain everything from snatches of poetry and verses from the Qur’an to clever aphorisms, boastful slogans and pious wishes. The Nasrid motto – “There is no victor but Allah” – is the most common inscription.
The mathematical properties of the decorative tile and stucco patterns of the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain have been extensively studied. Although it is disputed, some authors say that all of the 17 wallpaper groups can be found in the Alhambra. (Wallpaper groups are ways which patterns can be repeated.)
The illustrator M.C. Escher visited the palace twice. The patterns, tessellations and rotational symmetry had a big influence on his drawings.
I’m an 18-year-old Australian, just finishing a year abroad in Europe between high school and university. I have backpacked alone and these are some of my tips and tricks for a first-time backpacker, geared towards travelling in Europe.
1. If you want to go travelling you should.
I found this year was the perfect year for travelling as I’d saved up, had money to go wherever I wanted and see things I’d only studied. I had just finished all my years of school and didn’t want to go straight into university. My year abroad has made me grow up and learn to live independently, use money well and helped me gain more understanding into what I want to do in my further studies; I even completely changed the course I wanted to study and realised that I wanted to learn another language!
2. Travelling can be daunting
particularly when you are young and travelling alone, but there are many ways to begin your trip so you don’t get overwhelmed. The first month of my trip was an organised program, so I was with the same group of people and staying in the same place which really eased me into my trip. Other ideas are beginning your trip with friends to get your bearings or if you have family overseas, start by seeing them and then going off on your own.
3. There are ups and downs of travelling alone.
I found that travelling on my own worked for me because I had complete control over what I wanted to do and where I wanted to go. I met so many people, travellers and locals that I wouldn’t have met if I was with a group of friends and it took me out of my comfort zone, I learnt to cook and I learnt to manage independently. There were no arguments or different viewpoints so I felt very free. The biggest downside was probably loneliness. I had times where I felt that even though I was always meeting people, I never really got to know anyone or have more than that “first” conversation. Thankfully many solo travellers were very understanding as they felt the same way sometimes.
4. It’s a good idea to look into doing a variety of different things
especially when going on a long trip. Everyone is different: I met someone who had just been backpacking for a year and she was loving it but I was completely burnt out after two months. That’s one reason I incorporated Workaway into my trip. Workaway is a website for volunteers that has so many amazing aspects. You can do a variety of different things such as working at hostels, on farms, with animals, nannying, etc. in a country that interests you. It is an incredible cultural exchange and you will learn about a different way of life, work skills or perhaps something you want to pursue in the future. You stay grounded for a few weeks up to a few months, and the people you work with become your friends (combatting one of the downsides I mentioned earlier) and teach you new skills. I have done two this year: one month in Croatia in the summer on a self-sustainable farm and an olive harvest in Spain. Without Workaway I don’t think I would have been able to travel for the length I did.
5. Dont rush.
This is something I wish I had read before I left. I was so excited in my first few months of Europe that I went from place to place every two or three days. It was completely exhausting and expensive. I would leave the hostel at 7am and not return until 10pm, trying to pack so much into my day that I ended up too tired to be amazed and astounded at what I was seeing. Rather than two or three nights in each place consider four or more nights, especially in bigger cities. This means that not only do you have more time to see anything at a slower pace, you also have time to relax, sometimes have a late night and be able to sleep all morning and connect with people properly.
6. Try not to overplan.
It is difficult to believe before you leave that it’s actually really easy to travel as you go and not book far in advance (depending on the season – in the middle of summer you need to book a little further in advance whereas off-peak seasons you can book a day or two in advance). I remember going through “Europe on a shoestring,” a fantastic Lonely Planet travel guide, freaking out because everything looked so beautiful and I didn’t know where I wanted to go or how to get from place to place or what to book. My parents told me to calm down and I would quickly figure it out while travelling, and I didn’t believe it at the time but it became very easy very quickly. I knew I wanted to do an anticlockwise loop around Europe (Western and Central) and that I was flying into Madrid and that was pretty much all. When I arrived in Madrid, I did some Internet searching, talked to other travellers about what they liked close by, found a 7-hour bus to Lisbon and that became my next stop and it went from there.
6. Hostelworld and GoEuro are your best friends.
Hostelworld is a really fantastic and easy to use app that you can use to book your hostels. You can read other people’s reviews, compare prices and see how close the hostels are to the center of town. Definitely read reviews and pay attention to the reviewers’ ages. In Europe I didn’t have much trouble but in Ireland I accidentally booked “homeless” hostels because I just booked the cheapest place rather than backpacker-friendly places. It is ALWAYS better to spend more money to be somewhere you feel safe and comfortable as if you don’t feel safe at your hostel, it really affects how you feel about the city or town you’re in. It’s also good to pay attention to different things the hostel offers: it could be a free breakfast, kitchen, a bar, right in the center or even a pool. Also treat yourself occasionally: go for a private room in a hostel or Airbnb (in Bosnia a private room and ensuite in a hostel was 18 euros) as sometimes you need some alone time and a good sleep after sharing a hostel room with 6 or more people for a month to get your spark back. GoEuro is a fantastic site to compare bus/train/flights to your next place. I generally used buses to get from place to place as it’s far cheaper, more comfortable and safer (I’ve heard some stories of things getting stolen on trains), also lots of buses have Internet, including Flixbus which was my favourite way to travel and has many connections and very, very cheap fares. SkyScanner is great for cheap flights (Ryanair is fantastic for budget flights, it cost me 20 euros to get from England to Ireland!).
7. Busabout and Interrailing
I looked into both of these before I went and decided they weren’t right for me. Interrail seems good for groups and smaller trips but it’s very expensive and both restrict your trip to certain destinations and I found it was just as easy to book buses as I went and I didn’t miss smaller towns that other travellers told me about along the way that I might not have been able to see otherwise. Busabout has many perks: they take you to lots of destinations and right to the front of hostels, good for solo and first-time travellers because you meet lots of people on the bus (mostly Australians apparently!) but it seems cheaper and in many ways easier to just travel as you go. I can’t say much more than that because I didn’t use either but I think it definitely depends on the individual person and it’s good to look into it.
I think I must have searched through so many sites about this and again it’s very much up to the individual. I can tell you that my budget was 50 euros a day and that was plenty. I mostly spent less unless I had a big night or a flight but it mostly evened out in the end to 50 euros. My budget meant I could stay in good hostels, go out for a meal once every couple of days, see all of the tourist attractions that cost money that I wanted to see and treat myself to delicious gelatos in Italy or a pint (or five) in a pub. At the start of my trip I was very tight with money but relaxed as I went. It’s always a good idea to find the places you want to go to in advance as most museums and galleries have certain times when they are free or reduced (IE the Prado in Madrid is generally free between 6-8pm) and many tourist attractions are reduced if you are a student and have a student ID or something showing you are a student (I had an email saying I had been accepted by my university). Time versus money is also something to bear in mind. I walked everywhere at the beginning of my trip which is a great way to see more of a city but also means you might run out of time to see all the things you really want to see! Public transport is generally very easy and super cheap, and if you search on Google maps from your current location to where you want to go, it will tell you the best route to use.
9. Food. Go out as much as your budget allows!
The food from each country is as much a part of your travelling as the attractions or people. Talk to other travellers and ask hostel staff to recommend their favourite restaurants. Do a quick Google search to see what the food specialities are in the city, country or region where you are. Go out of your comfort zone: try spiders in Cambodia and snails in Portugal – you might be surprised! It’s very easy to spend a minimal amount on food when you’re not eating out so you can treat yourself, and if you avoid tourist hotspots you can find cheap restaurants with delicious, authentic meals. When eating in, I found going on a big supermarket shop when I arrived in a new place the best way to go. Make sure you buy a variety of foods to keep you healthy and energised. I generally bought a cheap tub of yogurt and muesli for breakfast (if the hostel didn’t provide one), a baguette with some ham or cheese and veg for a packed lunch before I went out and then had simple meals to cook in the evening such as baked beans and potatoes, easy Mexican wraps, ingredients for pasta sauce, lentils. As long as you get some proteins, carbs, fruit and veg you’ll be alright (if you just live off pasta and rice, you’ll very quickly become tired and grumpy) and making something to go with them is really easy. Definitely try and find hostels with kitchens. Also I always forgot about sugar! It sounds weird but a gelato (delicious and only 1-2 euros) or something similar can really boost your body when you’re feeling a bit tired and sore.
10. Finally, packing.
The smaller the better. My backpack was approximately 10kg. I could take it on the plane with me and I haven’t even worn all the things in it. I also had a smaller day bag for a book, journal, water bottle (really important! go for a light, metal bottle that is at least 500ml so you stay hydrated especially in the heat – there are lots of places to fill up water and you sometimes have to pay for water in restaurants in Europe), wallet, phone, charger and a packed lunch. I’ve seen people with all sorts of unnecessary things, huge amounts of makeup, hairdryers and straighteners, big wheely bags which seemed to make travelling a lot more difficult (they’re fine for small trips but after a few months you will wish you hadn’t packed everything, especially as they might break or get stolen). A backpack/rucksack is the most efficient thing to have as it’s easy to carry around (remember those cobbled streets!) and easy to access and put in lockers in hostels. I also found dry bags or storing cubes are lifesavers so you can easily find different items of clothing without taking all your clothes out. A lock is really important as most hostels provide a locker but only some have locks and if you don’t want to carry your passport and valuables around with you then you can keep them safe at the hostel. Pack multiple bank cards and store them in different places (and some emergency money) so if one gets stolen you have access to money. Always know where your things are and keep your eyes on them (even when you go to the toilet!) because people do steal other people’s things and many people I’ve talked to have had things stolen from them. There are You can pack certain things which will Various things can You can pack certain things to help you save space: LUSH sells shampoo/conditioner bars which wash your hair well and are very compact and small and not liquid, a travel towel is very compact, plastic or dry bags for dirty clothes. Try not to pack special clothes/items because it’s very easy to leave them behind but pack lots of knickers and socks. A good way to save money on washing clothes is to wash knickers and socks in the sink with soap when they get dirty and just do a big wash when all of your clothes need it (check prices as some hostels are a ripoff for clothes washing compared to a laundromat).
I’m sure I could keep going on about different things to help you travel but you will find most of them out along the way and that’s one of the best things about travelling! You learn so much and do so many things from seeing Picasso’s Guernica in Spain to hiking the High Tatras Mountains in Slovakia. You will meet amazing and like-minded people and experience different cultures and traditions. Things will definitely go wrong: I had all my valuables stolen in Cambodia, missed buses, had the weirdest of people in my hostel rooms, gotten bedbugs, been lost in a city with no phone and nowhere to sleep, you name it but you will learn from them and try not to freak out because you will be able to figure it out and from it you will learn how to deal with similar situations in the future. My parents call it “character building”. I promise you’ll laugh about it when it’s all over. My year of travelling has been the most incredible experience of my life and I definitely now have the travel bug. Seeing the world is one of the best things you can do and I would recommend it to anyone of any age.
This article was written by Hannah Robinson from Melbourne Australia when a snowstorm stopped the olive harvest in the south of Spain on the 11th December just before the end of the trip which will end with a family reunion in Australia.
The largest property in Australia is bigger than Belgium. The biggest cattle farm (located in SA) is larger than Isreal. There have been 16 shark attacks in Australia in 2017. Australia is the smallest inhabited continent with 23.14 million people. Australia is 32 times the size of the UK but the United Kingdom has 65 million people (3 times the population of Aus). Two thirds of Australia is made up of desert, also known as the outback. There is also rainforest and mountains. In the desert, tempuratures can rise to 50 degrees celcius during the day and drop below 0 at night. More than 85% of Australians live around the coast.
The only place monotremes (egg laying mammals) can be found is in Australia. Platypuses are monotremes, they hunt in the water, with a long beak and webbed feet like a duck, waterproof fur like an otter, and a tail like a beaver. There is snow in the Australia, and the area covered by snow in winter is bigger than the size of Switzerland. 10 of the 15 most posinous snakes in the world are found in Australia, as well as the most poisonous jellyfish (the Box Jellyfish) which kills you within minutes. Indegenous people are thought to be the oldest culture in the world, living in Australia for over 50,000 years. In the 21st century there are approximately 150 different Indegenous languages, which has dropped from 250 since European settlement. Over 25% of people that live in Australia were born overseas. “Australia” is derived from “terra australis terra” which means unknown southern island. Ausralia´s capital city, Canberra, was created because Melbourne and Sydney couldnt decide which one should be the capital city.
The great barier reef is the largest coral reef in the world and is home to over 1´500 species of fish and 300 species of coral. Emu´s and Kangaroo´s can only move forwards and not backwards. Contrary to what the rest of the world believe, Australians don’t really drink Fosters and you generally can’t find it in bars or bottle shops. Indegenous people are now only 2% of the population of Australia. Australia was the second country in the world after New Zealand to have women´s right to vote but only in late 2017 have legalised gay marriage. Kangaroos can jump up to three times their own height. A male kangaroo is called a boomer and a female a flyer, a baby is a joey. Australia voted the Magpie as the bird of the year in 2017 even though someone loses an eye from a magpie attack approximately every year.
The largest producer of gold in the world is in Australia, in a small town in WA called Kargoolie. A platypus has enough venom to kill a small dog. Bob Hawkes, a former Prime Minister of Australia holds the world record for drinking 2.5 pints of beer in 11 seconds. The longest straight road in the world is in Australia and is 146km long. In 2011, there were approximately 34,000,000 kangaroos and they can only be found in Austrlalia. The first ever policemen in Australia were well behaved convicts. Australia has over 10,000 beaches.
Valencia is one of the largest cities in Spain, but to me, it was a nice escape from the hustle and bustle of tourist season in Barcelona. Valencia is just a 5 hour bus ride from Barcelona. My bus ticket cost approximately 30 euros, but only because I bought the ticket at the bus station in Barcelona. Note: The Alsa website only accepts Spanish credit cards. However, I was informed after the fact, that they do accept PayPal.
Five Things to Do in Valencia:
Bike through the Jardines de Turia to the Beach
The Jardines de Turia are 9 kilometers of old river bed that were transformed into a beautiful, public park. The park runs through the center of Valencia and its designated bicycle lanes make for a smooth, scenic ride through the city. The end of the park is only a short distance to the sandy, sprawling beaches of Valencia.
Bicycles are by far the best mode of transportation in Valencia and can be rented for as little as 9 euros per day. Hostels usually have deals for bike rentals as well, I rented a bike for 10 euros for two days through Feetup Hostels The Red Nest and Passion Bikes.
Visit La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias
La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias is must-see cultural center for art and science lovers. La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias is home to Europe’s largest aquarium, L’Oceanografic, Palau de les Arts, L’Hemisferic and the Museu de Les Ciencies Principe Felipe. The center is conveniently located at the southeastern end of the Jardines de Turia and is easily accessed by bike or public transport. I visited the Museu de les Ciencies during Pixar’s 25th anniversary exhibit. It cost 8 euros for a ticket to the exhibit, which included entry to the museum.
Get wild in Bioparc Valencia
The Bioparc, unlike most zoos, has no fences separating the animals from visitors. Instead the zoo utilizes natural barriers, such as boulders and foliage to give visitors the illusion of being in the animal’s environment. This is the one thing I regret not doing in Valencia, as many people told me it was an amazing experience.
Eat Paella Valenciana
Valencia is where the Spanish rice dish, paella, originated. Traditional Paella Valenciana recipes contain rabbit and chicken. Most restaurants throughout Valencia serve paella, however I was told by a local that the dish is generally only served at lunchtime. Click here for more info about Paella
Visit the Torres de Serranos
Built at the end of the 14th century, the Torres de Serranos is one of the 12 gates found along the old medieval city wall of Valencia. Originally built as a defense mechanism, the tower later housed prisoners. The Torres de Serranos is one of the largest Gothic city gates in Europe. On Sundays entry to the Torres de Serranos is free.
So you’re planning an extended trip to Europe, great! You most likely have already mapped out the cities you’d like to visit, sought out friends for advice and possibly went ahead and downloaded the best apps for travel… but have you thought about a visa?
It is always a good idea to research a country’s specific entry requirements before planning a trip abroad. For non-EU citizens planning to backpack or travel throughout Europe for more than 3 months, in addition to having a valid passport, you will need to familiarize yourself with the Schengen Area Agreement.
What is the Schengen Area Agreement? It is a border agreement between 26 European countries to allow EU citizens to travel and settle freely within the area. Non-EU citizens, with the proper documentation, are also permitted to travel freely within the Schengen area, but are limited to 90 days out of an 180 day period.
Schengen countries include: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Liechtenstein.
You may be asking yourself, but what if I want to travel throughout Europe for longer than 90 days?
Traveling for more than 90 days throughout Europe is possible, if you plan accordingly. You can split up time between the Schengen area and non-Schengen countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom are all part of the EU, but are non-Schengen countries.
For example, you can spend 45 days in the Schengen area, then fly to say, the United Kingdom, and spend however many days the UK tourist visa will allow, then re-enter the Schengen area for your remaining 45 days.
Again, it is best to research country specific entry requirements before considering travel to the United Kingdom, or another non-Schengen country, as you may be asked for additional documentation.
For more information about the Schengen area visit:
The nearest galaxy to our own (the Milky Way) is Andromeda, approximately 2.5 million light years away. It is also the most distant object you can see with your naked eye; you can see it on very clear nights with no light pollution. The Andromeda galaxy is approaching our own at the rate of 140 kilometers per second and will one day collide and merge to create a singular giant galaxy. Scientists estimate this will happen in around 4 billion years time.
The Soviet Union’s Space program achieved many of the initial milestones in space exploration. The first man-made structure to orbit the Earth was the USSR’s Sputnik 1 in 1957, the first human in Space was the Soviet “Yuri Gagarin” in 1961 and the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971 was launched by the USSR. However, it was the USA and NASA who put the first men on the moon with the Apollo 11 spacecraft; Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin being the first men to step on the moon and Michael Collins the spacecraft’s pilot. Armstrong spent roughly two and a half hours outside of the spacecraft. After landing, all three crew members had to spend 21 days in quarantine where they were visited by Richard Nixon, the president of the USA at the time.
Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water and the land is mainly composed of iron, oxygen, silicon and magnesium with the majority of the iron being contained in the Earth’s core. The Earth tilts at around 66 degrees, bulges at the center around the equator and its rotation is slowing at a rate of 17 milliseconds every 100 years. The Earth is the only planet in the solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman god.
With the launch of Sputnik 2 was Laika, the Siberian Husky, who was the first animal to orbit the Earth. However, it was fruit flies, not Laika, that were the very first animals ever in space. In February 1947 the United States put fruit flies in V-2 rockets in order to study the effects of radiation. The very first mammal being a monkey named “Albert II” that was used by the United States to measure vital signs.
In the 1950s the United States government were considering detonating a nuclear bomb on the Moon in order to intimidate the USSR during the “Space Race”. Some theories suggest that the Moon was formed after a giant collision between Earth and another planet called Theia. The tides on the Earth are created by the Moon’s gravitational pull. The Moon has no atmosphere and is completely unprotected against cosmic rays and, due to the Earth’s gravitational pull, the Moon suffers from seismic tremors about 7km under the surface.
Where can you find the majority of the Earth’s iron? (in the core)
How much of the Earth’s surface is covered in water? (70%)
What is the name of our galaxy? (The Milky Way)
When will the Andromeda galaxy collide with our own? (in 4 billion years)
Who was the first human in Space? (Yuri Gagarin)
When was Sputnik launched? (1957)
How long did Neil Armstrong spend outside of the spacecraft? (two and a half hours)
Which member of Apollo 11 did not step on the moon? (Michael Collins)
What was the name of the first space station? (Salyut 1)
How long did the crew members of Apollo 11 spend in quarantine? (21 days)
What were the first animals in space? (fruit flies)
What was the name of the first animal to orbit the Earth? (Laika)
Why did the USA send Albert II into space? (To measure vital signs)
What is the composition of the Moon’s atmosphere? (It doesn’t have one)
What happens 7km under the surface of the moon?
What did the US government want to do on the moon to intimidate the USSR? (detonate a nuclear bomb)
How was the Moon formed? (Theories say the Earth and a planet called “Theia” collided and shattered)
What protection does the Moon have from cosmic rays? (none)
A permanent Dutch settlement was established at Fort Orange (now Albany) in 1624. The following year Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island from the Indians in exchange for some objects worth about 60 Dutch guilders and founded the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now New York City). It is difficult to calculate how much this would be worth in modern times and estimates vary between $1000 and $19000 but in any case it was extremely cheap. The Indians had no concept of property ownership at that time and did not fully understand what it was to own land.
New York City is famous for its skyscrapers which are concentrated in Midtown and Lower Manhattan. There are 5,845 high-rises, 98 of which are higher than 600 feet or 183 m. The tallest building in New York is One World Trade Center, which is 1,776 feet or 541 m. One of the most famous skyscrapers is the Empire State Building 1,250 feet or 380 m. It was the tallest building in New York between 1931 and 1970.
In 2014 the population New York City was almost 20 million. There are more than 26,000 people living in each square mile. 51.6% of New Yorkers are women and 17.4% are black. On average there is a birth every 4.4. minutes and a death every 9.1 minutes. New York was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been largest city in the USA since 1790.
The terrorist attacks on September 11th 2001 shocked the world when American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Within two hours, both of the 110-story towers collapsed. The attacks killed 2,996 people (including 19 hijackers) and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage. The cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002 and in 2006 construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened in November 2014
Since the 1920s the nickname for New York City has been the “Big Apple”. The city of New York will pay for a one-way plane ticket for any homeless person if they have a guaranteed place to stay. The “New York Post” established in 1803 by Alexander Hamilton is the oldest running newspaper in the United States. Times Square is named after the New York Times.
Tourism in New York City is a major industry and there are over 54 million foreign and American tourists each year including day-trippers. One of the big tourist attraction of New York city is the Statue of Liberty which is a giant statue given to America in 1886 by the French. It is visited by 4m people each year. The Statue of Liberty was designed by Gustave Eiffel who also designed the Eiffel Tower. In high winds of 50mph Lady Liberty can sway by up to 3 inches, while her torch can move 5 inches. From the ground to the top of the torch the statue measures 93 metres, and weighs 204 metric tonnes.