Fun Facts about Dogs

Shep the dog
Shep our dog.

Dogs evolved from an extinct wolf-like creature in Eurasia 40,000 years ago. Male dogs are called dogs, female dogs are called bitches and young dogs are called puppys. Some studies believe that dogs started to be domesticated 33,000 years ago. Dogs belong to a biological family called the Canidae, a member of this family is called a canid. This is the origin of the adjective “canine” which means “of or like a dog, relating to or characteristic of dogs”.

Dogs have a very good sense of smell. The part of a dogs brain that analyses smell is 40 times larger than a human’s and they can smell 1,000 to 10,000 times better than us. About one-third of a dog’s brain is dedicated to smell. The breed of dog with the best sense of smell is the bloodhound. A dog could detect a teaspoon of sugar if you added it to an Olympic-sized swimming pool full of water. Dogs can be trained to detect cancer in humans. Some dogs can tell if a human is about to have an epileptic fit. About 12 percent of the air that a dog breathes goes into a special area in the back of the nose that is dedicated to smelling. A dog can both sniff and breathe at the same time. Dogs know from which nostril a smell has entered. Dogs can use their sense of smell to gauge our emotions, they can smell fear, anxiety, even sadness this is due to the fact that they can smell hormones such as adrenaline. Police dogs can smell human bodies even when they are buried up to 3 metres in the ground.

Watercolors of Dogs
These watercolors  of dogs were painted by Helen. She is a talented artist and will paint dogs if you send her a photo.  see her website here

Dogs see in colors of various shades of blue and yellow. If you want a dog to see things in a green background the best colour is blue. Humans generally see better than dogs but dogs see much better when there is low-light. Dogs cannot distinguish between red and green and these colours would appear as shades of grey to a dog.

Dogs like to chew bones but cooked bones and bones that can splinter such as cooked chicken bones should not be given to dogs. When dogs were evolving , bone marrow could sometimes form an important part of their diet. Dogs often bury bones so that they can dig them up at some moment in the future when they are hungry.

Chocolate is poisonous to dogs because it contains theobromine. A Labrador (around 30kg bodyweight) would probably die if it consumed more than ½kg of dark chocolate.

Dogs have a ligament in the neck which allows them to conserve energy while running long distances following scent trails with their nose to the ground. Many other species have a similar ligament and it is called a Paddywhack.

Although dogs have some sweat glands in their feet, their principal way of losing heat when they are too hot is by panting. When dogs have been doing a lot of exercise, they pant, it is not because they are out of breath like a human would be. Dogs have developed the method of losing heat by panting because sweating would not be very efficient due to all the fur. The normal body temperature of a dog is 38.3 to 39.2 degrees Celsius whereas human normal body temperature 37 degrees Celsius.

Female dogs can get pregnant when their bodies undergo changes which make them receptive to male dogs. This is called being on heat or in estrus. Male dogs know the female is on heat due to a smell emitted from the female dog. If the female is receptive, she will stand still and hold her tail to the side, a stance referred to as “flagging”. Most dogs go on heat every 6 months and estrus lasts between 7 and 18 days. When dogs copulate it is very normal for them to get stuck together and it may last for up to 45 minutes. Most vets recommend that bitches don’t get pregnant until the third estrus. Pregnancy can be prevented by spaying the female dog, this involves removing both the ovaries and the uterus. Dogs don’t go into the menopause and will continue to go on heat indefinitely unless they are spayed. Small and medium-sized dogs mostly have a gestation period of fifty to sixty days while larger breeds average sixty to sixty-five days. Dogs normally have between one to sixteen or even more puppies. It is not possible to know how many puppies a bitch will have just by looking at the pregnant bitch, the appearance can be very deceptive. Puppies are born deaf and cannot hear until they are about 21 days old. The young are born small, blind and helpless and require a long period of parental care.


Most dogs have 42 teeth. Corgi is Welsh for “dwarf dog.” Greyhounds can reach a speed of up to 45 miles per hour. Male dogs have a bone in their penis. The most popular bree of domestic dog in the US and the UK is the Labrador Retriever. The border collie or sheep dog is often considered to be the most intelligent breed of dog some of them have been trained to recognise the words for up to 1,000 objects and retrieved them by verbal command. Dogs can discriminate the emotional expressions of human faces.The largest breed of dog is the Irish Wolfhound. Dogs do not have an appendix. Dogs are all direct descendants of wolves. Wolves and dogs can mate to produce fertile offspring. A dog’s heart beats up to 120 times per minute, or 50% faster than the average human heartbeat of 80 times per minute.


Five Things to Do in Valencia


Valencia is one of the largest cities in Spain, but to me, it was a nice escape from the hustle and bustle of tourist season in Barcelona. Valencia is just a 5 hour bus ride from Barcelona. My bus ticket cost approximately 30 euros, but only because I bought the ticket at the bus station in Barcelona. Note: The Alsa website only accepts Spanish credit cards. However, I was informed after the fact, that they do accept PayPal.

Five Things to Do in Valencia:

Bike through the Jardines de Turia to the Beach

The Jardines de Turia are 9 kilometers of old river bed that were transformed into a beautiful, public park. The park runs through the center of Valencia and its designated bicycle lanes make for a smooth, scenic ride through the city. The end of the park is only a short distance to the sandy, sprawling beaches of Valencia.

Bicycles are by far the best mode of transportation in Valencia and can be rented for as little as 9 euros per day. Hostels usually have deals for bike rentals as well, I rented a bike for 10 euros for two days through Feetup Hostels The Red Nest and Passion Bikes.

Visit La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias

La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias is must-see cultural center for art and science lovers. La Ciudad de las Artes y Ciencias is home to Europe’s largest aquarium, L’Oceanografic, Palau de les Arts, L’Hemisferic and the Museu de Les Ciencies Principe Felipe. The center is conveniently located at the southeastern end of the Jardines de Turia and is easily accessed by bike or public transport. I visited the Museu de les Ciencies during Pixar’s 25th anniversary exhibit. It cost 8 euros for a ticket to the exhibit, which included entry to the museum.

Get wild in Bioparc Valencia

The Bioparc, unlike most zoos, has no fences separating the animals from visitors. Instead the zoo utilizes natural barriers, such as boulders and foliage to give visitors the illusion of being in the animal’s environment. This is the one thing I regret not doing in Valencia, as many people told me it was an amazing experience.

Eat Paella Valenciana

Valencia is where the Spanish rice dish, paella, originated. Traditional Paella Valenciana recipes contain rabbit and chicken. Most restaurants throughout Valencia serve paella, however I was told by a local that the dish is generally only served at lunchtime. Click here for more info about Paella

Visit the Torres de Serranos

Built at the end of the 14th century, the Torres de Serranos is one of the 12 gates found along the old medieval city wall of Valencia. Originally built as a defense mechanism, the tower later housed prisoners. The Torres de Serranos is one of the largest Gothic city gates in Europe. On Sundays entry to the Torres de Serranos is free.

Wikipedia entry on Valencia

Survival Spanish for travellers

Learn Spanish in Valencia

Basic facts about the Schengen.

So you’re planning an extended trip to Europe, great! You most likely have already mapped out the cities you’d like to visit, sought out friends for advice and possibly went ahead and downloaded the best apps for travel… but have you thought about a visa?

It is always a good idea to research a country’s specific entry requirements before planning a trip abroad. For non-EU citizens planning to backpack or travel throughout Europe for more than 3 months, in addition to having a valid passport, you will need to familiarize yourself with the Schengen Area Agreement.

What is the Schengen Area Agreement? It is a border agreement between 26 European countries to allow EU citizens to travel and settle freely within the area. Non-EU citizens, with the proper documentation, are also permitted to travel freely within the Schengen area, but are limited to 90 days out of an 180 day period.

Schengen countries include: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Liechtenstein.


You may be asking yourself, but what if I want to travel throughout Europe for longer than 90 days?

Traveling for more than 90 days throughout Europe is possible, if you plan accordingly. You can split up time between the Schengen area and non-Schengen countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom are all part of the EU, but are non-Schengen countries.

For example, you can spend 45 days in the Schengen area, then fly to say, the United Kingdom, and spend however many days the UK tourist visa will allow, then re-enter the Schengen area for your remaining 45 days.

Again, it is best to research country specific entry requirements before considering travel to the United Kingdom, or another non-Schengen country, as you may be asked for additional documentation.

For more information about the Schengen area visit:

The European Commission’s Migration and Home Affairs website.



What is wrong with yummy?

Yummy ice cream
Justine Linda and Amanda enjoying a yummy ice cream

Over the last few years I have steadily developed a dislike for the word yummy. Just reading the word or hearing it uttered causes a mild distress. This may be similar to prudes or boring old farts who balk at the use of the ‘F’ word or are horrified at the ‘C’ word. How is it possible to dislike a word? What has caused this apparently irrational phobia? Over the last few days I have done some research into the word “yummy” in an attempt understand my condition.

The first line of enquiry centers around my dislike of infantile regression. That is, adults speaking like children, for example “the likkle doggie did a whoopsie in the housy”. There are other examples of child speak that I shy away from for example I have never liked the word pooh I have always preferred to say “shit” although for some reason the American word “poop” is OK. I have a “cock” not a “willy” a stomach not a “tummy” and a mom not a mommy. However, who says that the word yummy is a child’s word? Some online dictionaries say that the word “yummy” is onomatopoeic ie, a word that is an imitation of an actual sound, for example cuckoo, meow, honk, ping or boom. But who makes the sound of “yum” when they are eating? Unless you hadn’t eaten in three weeks and then fell into a vat of melted chocolate nobody would make a sound anywhere near the “yum” sound. Apart from the fact that “yummy” sounds a bit childish, the only strong link between the word yummy and children is the rhyme “yum-yum pigs bum apple pie and chewing gum”.

So, what is the etymology of the word yummy? The word has existed in dictionaries since 1899 and yum-yum as an exclamation of pleasure is recorded since 1878. This is the explanation given in several etymology dictionaries. In Senegal the word for food is “nyami” but that is just a coincidence. The best explanation of the origin of the word yummy is the following. Yummy comes from the ‘Yum’. This word comes from the Sanskrit mantra ‘Yum’ which is said during meditation. It helps to focus concentration on love and good things. The meditator would repeat Yum, Yum, Yum. Those traveling to India in the 1800s picked up on this. So now, if we think something is tasty and good, we think of joy, and say ‘Yum’. There is a you tube video of someone doing the “yum yum” meditation here.  That explanation gives a very pleasant slant on the yummy word and it makes me feel bad about not liking it. By the way the opposite of “yum” is “yuck” maybe this is the Sanskrit version of yin and yang.

Maybe a reason why I don’t like “yummy” is because we grow a lot of produce on our land and I am often scouring internet for recipes. Many food blogs are written by “popcorn assed muthafukas” ie (A person who is lame; in actions, speech, or overall demeanor). By the way, I found this expression on spotify in the lyrics of a song sung by a band called “yummy”. This may seem a little harsh and maybe I am just showing off by swearing but it is very annoying when I am trying to find a recipe and the author is just a middle class basterd who insists on telling everyone about the most trivial aspects of their lives interspersed with lashings of “yummies”, “yum-yums” and “yums”. Don’t they realise that the allotted praise phrases for this type of blog are “simply divine” or “utterly heavenly”. There may be a slight bit of English style class intolerance here, something akin to Arthur Scargill’s hatred of the filofax in the 1980’s.

There is another reason I don’t like “yummy”. The pedantic schoolteacher in me wishes that everyone were not so lazy and would have more imagination when using adjectives. Everything is not just “nice” or “cool”. Get off your mental arse and think of some more descriptive adjectives to describe things. Here are 160 to start with.

Acidic, Acrid, Aged, Amazing, Ambrosial, Appealing, Appetizing, Awesome, Bad, Bitter, Bittersweet, Bland, Brilliant, Burnt, Buttery, Chalky, Cheesy, Chewy, Chocolaty, Citrusy, Cool, Creamy, Crispy, Crumbly, Crunchy, Crusty, Delectable, Delicious, Delightful, Distasteful , Divine, Doughy, Dry, Dry, Dull, Eggy, Enjoyable, Enticing, Excellent, Exquisite, Extraordinary, Fantastic, Fatty, Fiery, Finger, Fishy, Fit For A King, Fizzy, Flakey, Flat, Flavor, Flavorful, Fresh, Fried, Fruity, Full-Bodied, Gamey, Garlicky, Gelatinous, Gingery, Glazed, Good, Gooey, Grainy, Greasy, Gritty, Harsh, Hearty, Heavenly, Heavy, Herbal, Horrible, Hot, Icy, Infused, Juicy, Juicy, Lean, Lemony, Light, Like, Lip, Luscious, Malty, Marvelous, Mashed, Meaty, Mellow, Mild, Minty, Moist, Mouthwatering, Mushy, Nectarous, Nutty, Oily, Oniony, Out Of This World, Overripe, Palatable, Peppery, Pickled, Piquant , Plain, Pleasant, Pleasant Tasting, Pleasing, Powdery, Raw, Refreshing, Rich, Ripe, Roasted, Robust, Rubbery, Runny, Salty, Sapid , Satisfying, Sautéed, Savory, Scrumptious, Seared, Seasoned, Sharp, Silky, Slimy, Smokey, Smooth, Soggy, Soupy, Sour, Spicy, Spongy, Stale, Sticky, Stringy, Strong, Succulent, Sugary, Super, Superb, Sweet, Sweet-And-Sour, Syrupy, Tangy, Tantalizing, Tart, Tasteless, Tasty, Tender, Terrific, Toasted, Tough, Unflavored, Unseasoned, Velvety, Vinegary, Watery, Wonderful, Yummy

If you need to see some of  these words used in sentences or learn how to use them in Spanish. Click here to see help with food adjectives in Spanish

Interesting facts about computers

Interesting facts about computers


One of the first modern examples of a computer was used in 1938 when the United States Navy developed an electromechanical analog computer called the “Torpedo Data Computer”. This machine was small enough to fit on a submarine and helped the Navy with guiding its torpedoes to their destination.

The world’s first programmable, electronic, digital computer was developed by a British man named Tommy Flowers and his team. First seen working in 1943, this machine was called the “Colossus” and was used in the Second World War to decipher complex messages used in Nazi communications. Ten of these machines were being used by the end of the war but unfortunately all were destroyed to maintain secrecy of the project. After the war, Tommy Flowers went to the Bank of England to ask for a loan to build a similar machine to the Colossus; it was denied as the bank did not believe the machine could work.

The first desktop personal computer, called the Programma 101, was developed by Pier Giorgio Perotto and his team of only four people for the Italian manufacturer “Olivetti”. It was launched at the 1964 New York World’s Fair with a price of $3,200, in modern day terms that would be around $20,000; 44,000 units were sold. NASA used some of these machines the 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing.

The highest selling computer of all time is the Commodore 64 with most sources saying that around 17 million were sold. At the height of its power more than 400,000 Commodore 64s were being built every month for a couple of years, according to Commodore’s former president. The machine was popular due to its relatively low price and performance which was easily superior to competitors at the time. The “64” in the name is in reference to the 64kb of RAM that is used in the machine.

Apple computers was founded in 1976 by three people: Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs and Ronald Gerald Wayne. Wayne, who drew the first Apple logo, sold his 10% stake in the company for just $800 which today would be worth approximately $60 billion dollars; Wayne says he does not regret the decision. To raise the necessary funds to start the company, Steve Jobs sold his Volkswagen van and Steve Wozniak sold his Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator.

The name “Microsoft” is a combination of the words “microcomputer” and “software” and was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975. The company has around 35 cafeterias which serves approximately 37,000 people each day, the most popular item being pizza. Microsoft owns 10,000 patents and files around 3,000 every year making it one of the top 5 patent owners in the USA. Microsoft are known for asking difficult interview questions, one of the most common examples is “Why is a manhole cover round?”

In May 2011, Google received over one billion visitors with users in total spending 200 billion minutes. The most searched terms in Google are “Facebook”, “Youtube” and then “sex/video”. The company is known for treating its employees well and offer them gourmet food three times a day. Unfortunately, this has caused a risk of all the employees gaining considerable weight but Google uses some subtle psychological techniques in order to dissuade people from choosing unhealthy options.

Questions and Answers

What was the first electromechanical analog computer used for? (Guiding torpedoes)

Who invented the first digital computer? (Tommy Flowers)

What was the first digital computer used for? (Deciphering Nazi communications)

How many of the Colossus computers still exist today? (0, all were destroyed after the war)

When was the Colossus first seen working? (1943)

How big was the entire team that developed the Programma 101? (Pier Giorgio Perotto and his team of 4 people: 5 people)

How much did the world’s first desktop personal computer cost? ($3,200, $20,000 in today’s money)

What does the “64” mean in “Commodore 64”? (It refers to the 64kb of RAM the machine used)

How many Commodore 64s were built per month? (At the height of its power, 400,000 units a month)

Who drew the first Apple logo? (Ronald Gerald Wayne)

How many people founded Apple? (three)

How much would a 10% stake in Apple be worth today? (Approx $60 billion)

What did Steve Jobs sell to raise funds to start Apple? (Volkswagen Van)

What does “Microsoft” mean? (combination of the words “microcomputer” and “software”)

What is the most eaten food in Microsoft cafeterias? (pizza)

Who founded Microsoft? (Bill Gates)


The incredible story of the first PC, from 1965

Qualche fatto interessante sullo Spazio

Fatti interessanti sullo Spazio

Man on the moon
Nello Spazio

La galassia piú vicina alla nostra (la Via Lattea) é Andromeda, a circa 2.5 milioni di anni luce di distanza. É anche l’oggetto piú lontano visibile a occhio nudo; potete vederla in notti molto limpide senza inquinamento luminoso. La galassia di Andromeda si sta avvicinando alla nostra alla velocitá di 140 chilometri al secondo; un giorno si scontreranno e si fonderanno a creare un’unica gigantesca galassia. Gli scienziati stimano che accadrá fra circa 4 miliardi di anni.

Il programma spaziale dell’Unione Sovietica ha conquiestato molte delle pietre miliari iniziali dell’esplorazione spaziale. Il primo artefatto umano a orbitare intorno alla Terra é stato lo Sputnik 1 dell’URSS, il primo essere umano nello spazio é stato il sovietico Yuri Gagarin nel 1961 e la prima stazione spaziale (Salyut 1) é stata lanciata dall’URSS nel 1971. Invece gli Stati Uniti sono stati i primi a far atterrare degli uomini sulla luna con l’astronave Apollo 11; Neil Armstrong e Buzz Aldrin, i primi uomini a mettere piede sulla luna, e il pilota Michael Collins. Armstrong passó circa due ore e mezza fuori dall’astronave. Dopo l’atterraggio, i tre membri dell’equipaggio dovettero passare 21 giorni in quarantena, dove furono visitati dall’allora presidente americano Richard Nixon.

Circa il 70% della superficie terrestre é ricoperta d’acqua e la terra é per lo piú composta da ferro, ossigeno, silicio e magnesio (la maggior parte del ferro si trova nel nucleo terrestre). La Terra é inclinata di circa 66 gradi, é piú gonfia al centro intorno all’Equatore e la sua rotazione sta rallentando alla velocitá di 17 millisecondi ogni 100 anni. La Terra é l’unico pianeta del sistema solare il cui nome non deriva da un dio greco o romano.

Quando fu lanciato lo Sputnik 2, aveva a bordo Laika, il cane husky che fu il primo animale a orbitare intorno alla terra. Peró furono dei moscerini, non Laika, i primi animali nello spazio. Nel febbraio 1947 gli Stati Uniti misero dei moscerini in dei razzi V-2 per studiare l’effetto delle radiazioni. Il primo mammifero invece fu una scimmia chiamata Albert II usata dagli Stati Uniti per monitorare i parametri vitali.

Nel 1950 il governo degli Stati Uniti stava pensando di far esplodere una bomba nucleare sulla Luna per intimidire l’URSS durante la “Corsa allo Spazio”. Alcune teorie suggeriscono che la Luna é stata formata dopo la collisione fra la Terra e un altro pianeta chiamato Theia. Le maree sulla Terra sono create dall’attrazione gravitazionale della Luna. La Luna non ha atmosfera e non ha difesa contro i raggi cosmici e, a causa dell’attrazione gravitazionale della Terra, ha tremori sismici circa 7 km sottoterra.


Dove si trova la maggior parte del ferro presente sulla Terra? (nel nucleo)

Che percentuale della superficie terrestre é coperta d’acqua? (70%)

Come si chiama la nostra galassia? (La Via Lattea)

Quando si scontreranno la nostra galassia e quella di Andromeda? (fra 4 miliardi di anni)

Chi é stato il primo uomo nello spazio? (Yuri Gagarin)

Quando é stato lanciato lo Sputnik? (1957)

Quanto tempo ha passato Neil Armstrong fuori dall’astronave? (due ore e mezza)

Quale membro dell’equipaggio dell’Apollo 11 non ha messo piede sulla Luna? (Michael Collins)

Come si chiamava la prima stazione spaziale? (Salyut 1)

Quanto tempo ha passato in quarantena l’equipaggio dell’Apollo 11? (21 days)

Quali sono stati i primi animali nello spazio? (moscerini)

Come si chiamava il primo animale a orbitare la Terra? (Laika)

Perché gli Stati Uniti hanno spedito la scimmia Albert II nello spazio? (Per monitorare i parametri vitali)

Da cosa é composta l’atmosfera della Luna? (Non ha atmosfera)

Cosa succede 7 km sotto la superficie della Luna? (tremori sismici)

Cosa voleva fare sulla Luna il governo degli Stati Uniti allo scopo di intimidire l’URSS? (far esplodere una bomba nucleare)

Come si é formata la Luna? (Le teorie dicono che la Terra e un pianeta chiamato “Theia” si sono scontrati)

Cosa protegge la luna dai raggi cosmici? (niente)


Earth Facts

Moon Facts

Andromeda Galaxy Facts

Some interesting facts about space

Interesting facts about space

Man on the moon
In Space

The nearest galaxy to our own (the Milky Way) is Andromeda, approximately 2.5 million light years away. It is also the most distant object you can see with your naked eye; you can see it on very clear nights with no light pollution. The Andromeda galaxy is approaching our own at the rate of 140 kilometers per second and will one day collide and merge to create a singular giant galaxy. Scientists estimate this will happen in around 4 billion years time.

The Soviet Union’s Space program achieved many of the initial milestones in space exploration. The first man-made structure to orbit the Earth was the USSR’s Sputnik 1 in 1957, the first human in Space was the Soviet “Yuri Gagarin” in 1961 and the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971 was launched by the USSR. However, it was the USA and NASA who put the first men on the moon with the Apollo 11 spacecraft; Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin being the first men to step on the moon and Michael Collins the spacecraft’s pilot. Armstrong spent roughly two and a half hours outside of the spacecraft. After landing, all three crew members had to spend 21 days in quarantine where they were visited by Richard Nixon, the president of the USA at the time.

Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water and the land is mainly composed of iron, oxygen, silicon and magnesium with the majority of the iron being contained in the Earth’s core. The Earth tilts at around 66 degrees, bulges at the center around the equator and its rotation is slowing at a rate of 17 milliseconds every 100 years. The Earth is the only planet in the solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman god.

With the launch of Sputnik 2 was Laika, the Siberian Husky, who was the first animal to orbit the Earth. However, it was fruit flies, not Laika, that were the very first animals ever in space. In February 1947 the United States put fruit flies in V-2 rockets in order to study the effects of radiation. The very first mammal being a monkey named “Albert II” that was used by the United States to measure vital signs.

In the 1950s the United States government were considering detonating a nuclear bomb on the Moon in order to intimidate the USSR during the “Space Race”. Some theories suggest that the Moon was formed after a giant collision between Earth and another planet called. The tides on the Earth are created by the Moon’s gravitational pull. The Moon has no atmosphere and is completely unprotected against cosmic rays and, due to the Earth’s gravitational pull, the Moon suffers from seismic tremors about 7km under the surface.

Where can you find the majority of the Earth’s iron? (in the core)

How much of the Earth’s surface is covered in water? (70%)

What is the name of our galaxy? (The Milky Way)

When will the Andromeda galaxy collide with our own? (in 4 billion years)

Who was the first human in Space? (Yuri Gagarin)

When was Sputnik launched? (1957)

How long did Neil Armstrong spend outside of the spacecraft? (two and a half hours)

Which member of Apollo 11 did not step on the moon? (Michael Collins)

What was the name of the first space station? (Salyut 1)

How long did the crew members of Apollo 11 spend in quarantine? (21 days)

What were the first animals in space? (fruit flies)

What was the name of the first animal to orbit the Earth? (Laika)

Why did the USA send Albert II into space? (To measure vital signs)

What is the composition of the Moon’s atmosphere? (It doesn’t have one)

What happens 7km under the surface of the moon?

What did the US government want to do on the moon to intimidate the USSR? (detonate a nuclear bomb)

How was the Moon formed? (Theories say the Earth and a planet called “Theia” collided and shattered)

What protection does the Moon have from cosmic rays? (none)


Earth Facts

Moon Facts

Andromeda Galaxy Facts

Fatti su Bob Marley

Fatti su Bob Marley

Bob Marley
Bob Marley

1. Bob Marley  nasce Robert Nesta Marley il 6 febbraio 1945 in Jamaica. Suo padre era un capitano di nave di 50 anni, bianco; sua madre una ragazza di villaggio di 19 anni. Per via delle sue origini miste venne soprannominato ‘ragazzino bianco’ e preso in giro dai coetanei. Questo bullismo contribuí alla sua crescita spirituale, portandolo a dichiarare: ‘Non sono dalla parte dell’uomo bianco né dalla parte dell’uomo nero, io sono dalla parte di Dio’.

2. Da bambino, Marley leggeva la mano e prediceva il futuro con inquietante accuratezza. Quando divenne un cantante, smise completamente di leggere la mano.

3. La sua prima band, i Wailing Wailers (‘coloro che si lamentano’), fu cosí chiamata perché vivevano nei bassifondi di Trench Town, ghetto povero di Kingston.

4. Bob Marley e il suo seguito furono attaccati da uno sconosciuto armato di pistola nel 1976, in un periodo di tumulti politici. Lui e sua moglie furono sfiorati da pallottole ma con coraggio salirono sul palco per un concerto chiamato ‘Smile Jamaica’ due giorni dopo, deliziando la folla.

5.Anche se Marley rimase sposato con sua moglie Rita dall’etá di 21 anni fino alla sua morte, ebbe anche almeno altri 8 figli con otto diverse donne. Anche se non é confermato, si ritiene che in realtá siano quasi 20.

6. A scuola, la materia in cui Bob Marley andava meglio era matematica. Lasció la scuola per diventare un apprendista saldatore, quindi lasció quello quando un pezzo di metallo gli finí nell’occhio. Dopodiché divenne un cantante.

7.Una volta Marley finí in prigione per un mese dopo essere stato arrestato per possesso di marijuana. Gli amici che incontró lá ispirarono gran parte del suo attivismo politico.

8. Nel 1973, Bob andó in tour aprendo i concerti di Bruce Springsteen, come anche degli Sly and the Family Stone. Fu licenziato da Sylvester Stone dopo il quarto show perché era troppo bravo e attirava troppo l’attenzione e l’entusiasmo della folla.

9. Bob Marley fu seppellito con una chitarra, un pallone da calcio e un germoglio di erba. Le sue ultime parole, rivolte al figlio Ziggy, fuono ‘i soldi non possono comprare la vita’.

10. I diritti d’autore di ‘No Woman No Cry’ vengono mandati direttamente a una mensa dei poveri in Giamaica. Bob Marley crebbe molto povero ma quando divenne ricco acquistó case per i suoi amici e parenti e aiutó molti poveri in Giamaica.


1. Qual’era il nome di battesimo di Bob Marley? (Robert)

2. Perché era stato soprannominato ´Ragazzino Bianco´? (suo padre era bianco)

3. Qual’era l’inquietante talento di Marley? (leggere la mano)

4. Qual’era il nome della sua prima band? (i Wailing Wailers)

5. Perché erano chiamati cosí? (vivevano in un ghetto)

6. Quando hanno sparato a Bob Marley? (1976)

7. Qual’era il nome del concerto dove suonó due giorni dopo? (Smile Jamaica)

8. Come si chiamava la moglie di Marley? (Rita)

9. Quanti figli illegittimi si sospetta che abbia avuto? (20)

10. Qual’era la materia in cui era piú bravo a scuola? (matematica)

11. Per che mestiere ha fatto l’apprendista? (saldatore)

12. Perché Bob Marley é andato in prigione? (possesso di marijuana)

13. Quanto vi é rimasto? (un mese)

14. In che hanno ha aperto i concerti di Bruce Springsteen? (1973)

15. Con chi altro é andato in tour? (Sly and the Family Stone)

16. Con cosa é stato seppellito Bob Marley? (chitarra, germoglio d’erba, pallone da calcio)

17. Qual’é il nome di uno dei figli di Marley? (Ziggy)

18. Chi riceve i diritti d’autore di `No Woman No Cry´? (una mensa per i poveri)


21 Things You Don’t Know About Bob Marley

Facts about Bob Marley

Facts about Bob Marley

Bob Marley
Bob Marley

1. Bob Marley was born Robert Nesta Marley on February 6, 1945 in Jamaica. His father was a 50 year old white naval captain, his mother a 19 year old village girl. His mixed background earned him the nickname `white boy´and the ridicule of his peers. His bullying contributed to his spiritual growth, bringing him to declare `I am not on the white man’s side or the black man’s side, I am on God’s side´.

2. As a child, Marley read palms and told fortunes with spooky accuracy. Once he became a singer, he quit palm reading cold turkey.

3. His first band, the Wailing Wailers, was so named because they were ghetto sufferers in Kingston´s Trench Town slum.

4. Bob Marley and his entourage were attacked by an unknown gunman in 1976 during a time of political turmoil. He and his wife were grazed by bullets but defiantly appeared on stage for a `Smile Jamaica´concert two days later, delighting the crowds.

5. Although Marley stayed married to his wife Rita from the age of 21 until his death, he also had at least

8 other children with eight other women. The unconfirmed believed number is closer to 20.

6. When he was in school, Bob Marley’s best subject was mathematics. He left school to become an apprentice welder, and he left that because a piece of metal flew into his eye. After this he became a singer.

7. Marley once went to jail for a month after being arrested for the possession of marijuana. The friends he met there inspired much of his political advocacy.

8. In 1973, Bob toured opening for Bruce Springsteen as well as Sly and the Family Stone. He was fired by Sylvester Stone after the fourth show for being too good and hogging the attention and love of the crowd.

9. Bob Marley was buried with a guitar, a soccer ball, and a bud of herb. His last words to his son Ziggy were `money can’t buy life´.

10. The royalties from `No Woman No Cry´are sent directly to a soup kitchen in Jamaica. Bob Marley grew up very poor but once he earned money he bought homes for his friends and family and supported many poor people in Jamaica.


1. What was Bob Marley’s given first name? (Robert)

2. Why was his nickname `White Boy´? (he had a white dad)

3. What was Marley’s spooky talent? (palm reading)

4. What was the name of his first band? (the Wailing Wailers)

5. Why were they called this? (they were ghetto sufferers)

6. When was Bob Marley shot? (1976)

7. What was the name of the concert he played two days later? (Smile Jamaica)

8. What was Marley’s wife named? (Rita)

9. How many children is he suspected to have fathered out of wedlock? (20)

10. What was his best subject in school? (mathematics)

11. What kind of apprenticeship did he do? (welding)

12. Why did Bob Marley go to jail? (possession of marijuana)

13. How long was he there? (one month)

14. When did Bob open for Bruce Springsteen? (1973)

15. Who else did he tour with? (Sly and the Family Stone)

16. What was Bob Marley buried with? (guitar, bud of herb, soccer ball)

17. What is the name of one of Marley’s sons? (Ziggy)

18. What happens to the royalties from `No Woman No Cry´? (soup kitchen)


21 Things You Don’t Know About Bob Marley

Fatti interessanti sull’Amore Romantico

Fatti sull’Amore Romantico


1. Il tempismo é tutto. Una persona ha piú probabilitá di innamorarsi quando ha un atteggiamento mentale avventuroso, quando é irrequeta, si sente sola o a posto dal punto di vista finanziario. Allo stesso modo, due persone che si incontrano in una situazione pericolosa hanno piú possibilitá di innamorarsi che se si fossero incontrari in una situazione noiosa.

2. Si stima che il tempo necessario a giudicare le sensazioni che qualcuno ti dá sia circa quattro minuti. Si ritiene che le sensazioni generate dalla prima impressione abbiano piú a che fare con il tono, il linguaggio del corpo e la velocitá con cui la persona parla anziché con ció che viene detto. Studi hanno rilevato che la felicitá é contagiosa. Per questo é difficile non innamorarsi di una persona felice.

3.Le donne sono solitamente attratte da uomini con un gran senso dell’umorismo perché l’umorismo é associato a onestá e intelligenza. In relazioni a lungo termine, la gente di solito preferisce un viso attraente a un corpo attraente. In relazioni a breve termine accade il contrario. Esiste un fenomeno chiamato ‘attrazione da frustrazione’ che significa che una persona sará ancora piú attratta da qualcuno che la rifiuta, o vorrá solo ció che non puó avere.

4. Innamorarsi puó far aumentare la crescita dei nervi nel corpo per circa un anno per via dell’effetto calmante che ha sul corpo e sulla mente. L’uso di cocaina e l’innamorarsi hanno gli stessi effetti neurologici sul corpo, causando una sensazione di euforia e stimolando 12 aree del cervello. É stato rilevato che tenersi per mano con la persona amata allevia stress, paura e dolore fisico.

5. Il momento piú probabile per lasciarsi é a 3-5 mesi dall’inizio di una relazione.

6. Durante le coccole, il cervello rilascia ossitocina. L’ossitocina é un antidolorifico naturale che puó alleviare stress e mal di testa per 4 ore.

7. Nei primi stadi dell’innamoramento, i sintomi psicologici di una persona sono paragonabili a quelli del disordine ossessivo-compulsivo. In entrambi i casi il cervello mostra livelli inferiori di serotonina (associata con sensazioni di pace) e maggiori livelli di cortisolo (associato con lo stress).

8.Quando ti innamori di qualcuno, il tuo corpo produce adrenalina – l’ormone della reazione istintiva di attacco o fuga. É questo che causa la sensazione di avere le farfalle nello stomaco.

9. Il desiderio sessuale stimola le aree del cervello dell’ipotalamo (fame e sete) e dell’amigdala (eccitazione), mentre i sentimenti amorosi stimola aree del cervello con elevata concentrazione di ricettori di dopamina (associate a euforia, dipendenze e voglie). Le sostanze chimiche associate all’amore e all’attaccamento, l’ossitocina e la vasopressina, sono soppresse dal testosterone. I livelli di testosterone calano quando un uomo tiene in braccio un bambino.

10. Gli uomini tendono a sentirsi amati quando lavorano, parlano o giocano fianco a fianco con la partner. Al contrario, le donne tendono a sentire il partner piú vicino quando parlano faccia a faccia. Quando due persone innamorate si guardano negli occhi, il loro battito cardiaco si fa sincronizzato. Ci vogliono circa tre minuti.


1. É vero che la situazione in cui due persone si incontrano influenza la probabilitá che hanno di innamorarsi? (sí)

2. Cita un fattore che influenza la probabilitá di una persona di trovare l’amore. (Sentirsi avventuroso, irrequieto, solo, la situazione finanziaria)

3. Quanto ci vuole a formare una prima impressione di qualcuno? (4 minuti)

4. Che qualitá rende qualcuno quasi irresistibile? (la felicitá)

5. L’umorismo é associato a quali qualitá? (onestá e intelligenza)

6. Come si dice quando vuoi ció che non puoi avere? (attrazione da frustrazione)

7. Un nuovo amore dá sensazioni simili a quale sostanza? (cocaina)

8. Stress e dolore possono essere alleviati da…? (tenersi la mano)

9. Qualé il momento in cui é piú probabile lasciarsi? (dopo 3-5 mesi)

10. Quando viene rilasciata ossitocina? (durante le coccole)

11. Cosa fa l’ossitocina? (allevia il dolore)

12. In che modo un nuovo amore somiglia al disordine ossessivo-compulsivo? (aumento di cortisolo, diminuzione di serotonina)

13. A cosa é collegato il cortisolo? (stress)

14. Quale sostanza chimica causa le farfalle nello stomaco? (adrenalina)

15. Quali sostanze chimiche sono soppresse dal testosterone? (ossitocina, vasopressina)

16. Cosa fa diminuire il testosterone? (tenere in braccio un bambino)

17. Gli uomini provano piú amore e si sentono piú vicini alla partner quando…? (sono fianco a fianco)

18. Quando due innamorati si guardano negli occhi, quanto tempo ci vuole perché i loro cuori inizino a battere in sincrono? (3 minuti)


Psychological Facts About Love: 27 Psychological Love Facts To Know